French Atomic Bomb Tests

FRENCH ATOMIC BOMB TESTS – 1968 – FANGATAUFA ATOLL

Canopus was the code name for France’s first two-stage thermonuclear test, conducted on August 24, 1968 at Fangataufa atoll.

In 1966, France was able to use fusion fuel to boost plutonium implosion devices with the Rigel shot. Roger Dautry, a nuclear physicist, was selected by the CEA to lead the development effort to construct a two-stage weapon. France did not have the ability to produce the materials needed for a two-stage thermonuclear device at the time, so 151 tons of heavy water was purchased from Norway and an additional 168 tons from the United States. This heavy water went into nuclear reactors in 1967 to produce tritium needed for the device.

The announcement by France in the late 1960s to test a hydrogen bomb provoked the People’s Republic of China to conduct a full scale hydrogen bomb test of its own on June 17, 1967.

France was to test the new device as part of a 5 shot series conducted at the nuclear testing grounds in French Polynesia. The device weighed three tons and used a lithium deuteride secondary stage with a highly enriched uranium jacket primary.

Fangataufa was selected as the location of the shot due to its isolation in respect to the main base on Mururoa. The device was suspended from a large hydrogen filled balloon. It was detonated at 18:30:00.5 GMT with a 2.6 megaton yield at an altitude of 1800 feet. As a result of the successful detonation, France became the 5th thermonuclear nation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wile E. Coyote and the Acme Corporation

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The Acme Corporation is a fictional corporation that features prominently in the Road Runner/Wile E. Coyote animated shorts as a running gag featuring outlandish products that fail or backfire catastrophically at the worst possible times. The name is also used as a generic title in many cartoons, especially those made by Warner Bros., and films, TV series, commercials and comic strips.

The company name in the Road Runner cartoons is ironic, since the word acme is derived from Greek (ακμή; English transliteration: akmē) meaning the peak, zenith or prime, yet products from the fictional Acme Corporation are often generic, failure-prone, and/or explosive.

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Sedan Nuclear Crater

The Sedan nuclear crater is located at the Nevada Test Site, about 90 miles north of Las Vegas. It is the result of the Sedan nuclear test, an underground nuclear test carried out on 6 July 1962 as part of the Plowshare Program, established in June 1957 to explore peaceful applications for controlled nuclear detonations. The idea was that a nuclear explosion could easily excavate a large area, facilitating the building of canals and roads, improving mining techniques, or simply moving a large amount of rock and soil. The intensity and distribution of radiation, however, proved too great, and the program was abandoned. Operation Plowshare resulted in 27 thermonuclear detonations. Only four events were intended to produce craters, among which Sedan was by far the largest.

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The device that produced the crater was buried 194 meters below the desert floor and had a yield equivalent to 104 kilotons of TNT or around eight Hiroshima bombs. The blast first lifted a dome of earth 90 meters above the desert floor before it vented at three seconds after detonation, exploding upward and outward displacing 12 million tons of earth. The resulting crater is 100 meters deep and 390 meters wide.

The explosion created fallout that affected more US residents than any other nuclear test, exposing more than 13 million people to radiation, although within 7 months of the detonation, the radiation had decayed to the point that the bottom of the crater could be safely walked upon with no protective clothing. Today, more than 10,000 visitors visit the crater every year through free monthly tours offered by the U.S. Department of Energy. An observation platform built on the rim of the crater allows tourists to peek into the crater below.

Negative impacts from Operation Plowshare’s 27 nuclear projects ultimately led to the program’s termination in 1977, largely due to public opposition.

The Soviet Union continued to pursue the concept through their program “Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy” and carried out more than 150 nuclear test. The best known was Chagan – a test identical to Sedan – which created the artificial lake reservoir Lake Chagan.

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The Sedan nuclear test on 6 July 1962.

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Satellite image of the Sedan crater.

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The Nevada Test Site is pockmarked by numerous nuclear tests. The Sedan crater is the largest among them.

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Observation deck at Sedan Crater.

 

Florida Gun Shop

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The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that, “The right to bear arms is not granted by the Constitution; neither is it in any manner dependent upon that instrument for its existence” and limited the scope of the Second Amendment’s protections to the federal government. In United States v. Miller (1939), the Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment did not protect weapon types not having a “reasonable relationship to the preservation or efficiency of a well regulated militia”.

Am I missing something? How do these school shooters tie into a well regulated militia?

Vampire Killing Kits

SOLD IN THE 19TH CENTURY, THESE VAMPIRE KILLING KITS WOULD KEEP YOU PREPARED AGAINST VAMPIRES! WITH EXTRA HOLY WATER, JUST IN CASE THOSE STORIES WERE TRUE.

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Sold in the 19th century, Vampire Killing Kits contain the items considered necessary for the protection of persons who traveled into the countries of Eastern Europe where Vampires lurked.

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Blast From The Past: The Neutron Bomb

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A neutron bomb, officially defined as a type of enhanced radiation weapon (ERW), is a low yield thermonuclear weapon designed to maximize lethal neutron radiation in the immediate vicinity of the blast while minimizing the physical power of the blast itself. The neutron release generated by a nuclear fusion reaction is intentionally allowed to escape the weapon, rather than being absorbed by its other components. The neutron burst, which is used as the primary destructive action of the warhead, is able to penetrate enemy armor more effectively than a conventional warhead, thus making it more lethal as a tactical weapon.

The concept was originally developed by the US in the late 1950s and early 1960s. It was seen as a “cleaner” bomb for use against massed Soviet armored divisions. As these would be used over allied nations, notably West Germany, the reduced blast damage was seen as an important advantage.

The weapon was once again proposed for tactical use by the US in the 1970s and 1980s, and production of the W70 began for the Lance missile in 1981. This time it experienced a firestorm of protest as the growing anti-nuclear movement gained strength through this period. Opposition was so intense that European leaders refused to accept it on their territory. President Reagan bowed to pressure and the built examples of the W70-3 remained stockpiled in the US until they were retired in 1992. The last W70 was dismantled in 2011.

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We got the neutron bomb
We got the neutron bomb
We got the neutron, gonna drop it all over the place
Yer gonna get it on yer face
Foreign aid from the land of the free
But don’t blame me
We got the neutron bomb
We got the neutron bomb
We got the neutron, don’t understand you don’t know what you mean
We don’t want you we want your machines
United Nations and NATO won’t do
It’s just the red, white and blue
We got the neutron bomb
We got the neutron bomb
We got the neutron, that’s the way it’s gotta be
Survivial of the fittest is the way it’s gonna be
We don’t want it, we don’t want it
Don’t blame me
We don’t want it, we don’t want it
Don’t blame me

I’m glad they stuck with the old run of the mill atomic bombs.

 

The Thrill of Standing Underneath an Atomic Explosion

When the US entered the nuclear age, it did so recklessly. New research suggests that the hidden cost of developing nuclear weapons were far larger than previous estimates, with radioactive fallout responsible for 340,000 to 690,000 American deaths from 1951 to 1973.

The study, performed by University of Arizona economist Keith Meyers, uses a novel method (pdf) to trace the deadly effects of this radiation, which was often consumed by Americans drinking milk far from the site of atomic tests.

From 1951 to 1963, the US tested nuclear weapons above ground in Nevada. Weapons researchers, not understanding the risks—or simply ignoring them—exposed thousands of workers to radioactive fallout. The emissions from nuclear reactions are deadly to humans in high doses, and can cause cancer even in low doses. At one point, researchers had volunteers stand underneath an airburst nuclear weapon to prove how safe it was:

“It was just Beautiful”.

Quartz.com